Literatur Review: Plant Efficacy as Biolarvicide for Anopheles Mosquito Vector Control

Literatur Review: Efikasi Tanaman Sebagai Biolarvasida Untuk Pengendalian Vektor Nyamuk Anopheles


  • Asrianto Asrianto Jurusan Teknologi Laboratorium Medis Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Indonesia
  • Suarna Samai Jurusan Pendidikan Biologi Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari, Indonesia
  • Muhamad Sahidin Jurusan Ners Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Indonesia
  • Indra Taufik Sahli Jurusan Teknologi Laboratorium Medis Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Indonesia
  • Risda Hartati Jurusan Teknologi Laboratorium Medis Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Indonesia
  • Wiwiek Mulyani Jurusan Sanitasi Poltekkes Kemenkes Jayapura, Indonesia



Anopheles, Plant, larvacide, mosquito


Mosquito vectors are a severe threat to the prevalence and incidence of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and filariasis. Malaria is a Plasmodium infection that is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria cases in tropical and subtropical countries have social and economic impacts. Mosquito vector control has been using chemical and synthetic compounds. This method can reduce malaria cases, but it creates new problems that also slow down the elimination of malaria in the long run. Vector control in the larval phase using bioactive compounds of various plants is an alternative to eradicating vectors; besides that, utilizing these bioactive compounds is relatively safer, cheaper, and more accessible. Plants contain several compounds that are toxic to Anopheles mosquito larvae. This literature study summarizes research on extracts of various plants that function as larvicides of the Anopheles mosquito. The research method uses a literature study. The literature related to the research topic was obtained from the databases of Google Scholar, Semantic Sholar, Garuda, PubMed, and Science Direct. The primary literature is a publication of the last ten years. The literature study results showed that the plants Vitex negundo Linn., Lawsonia inermis Linn., Stachys byzantina K.Koch., Pithecellobium dulce Bth., Olax dissiti?ora Oliv., Ipomea cairica Linn., Ricinnus communis Linn., Carica papaya Linn., Paederia foetida Linn., Glycosmis pentaphylla Retz., Terminalia chebula Retz., Annona squamosa Linn., Tagetes erecta Linn. and Azadiracha indica Juss. against mosquito vectors. This study concludes that secondary plant metabolites can be used as candidates and alternatives for controlling Anopheles mosquito larvae.


WHO. Malaria Factsheet No. 94, 2010. Geneva World Heal Organ 2010.

WHO. A global brief on vector-borne diseases. World Health Organization; 2014.

Garcia LS. Malaria. Clin Lab Med 2010;30:93?129.

Van den Bossche P, Coetzer JAW. Climate change and animal health in Africa. Rev Sci Tech 2008;27:551?62.

WHO. World malaria report 2016. Geneva PP - Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016.

Gautam K, Kumar P, Poonia S. Larvicidal activity and GC-MS analysis of flavonoids of Vitex negundo and Andrographis paniculata against two vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. J Vector Borne Dis 2013;50:171.

Das NG, Goswami D, Rabha B. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts. J Vector Borne Dis 2007;44:145.

Shaalan EA-S, Canyon D, Younes MWF, Abdel-Wahab H, Mansour A-H. A review of botanical phytochemicals with mosquitocidal potential. Environ Int 2005;31:1149?66.

Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. Indian J Med Res 2012;135:581.

Rahuman AA, Venkatesan P, Gopalakrishnan G. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad. Parasitol Res 2008;103:1383?90.

Sukumar K, Perich MJ, Boobar LR. Botanical derivatives in mosquito control: a review. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1991;7:210?37.

Cetin H, Erler F, Yanikoglu A. Larvicidal activity of a botanical natural product, AkseBio2, against Culex pipiens. Fitoterapia 2004;75:724?8.

S Mann R, E Kaufman P. Natural product pesticides: their development, delivery and use against insect vectors. Mini Rev Org Chem 2012;9:185?202.

Isman MB. Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. Annu Rev Entomol 2006;51:45?66.

Himeidan YE, Temu EA, El Rayah EA, Munga S, Kweka EJ. Chemical cues for malaria vectors oviposition site selection: challenges and opportunities. J Insects 2013;2013.

Ejeta D. Ethno-botanical survey of plants used for prevention against mosquito bites and control of malaria in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia. Int J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2019;4:12.

AhbiRami R, Zuharah WF, Thiagaletchumi M, Subramaniam S, Sundarasekar J. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica extract against dengue vector mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Insect Sci 2014;14.

Fillinger U, Lindsay SW. Suppression of exposure to malaria vectors by an order of magnitude using microbial larvicides in rural Kenya. Trop Med Int Heal 2006;11:1629?42.

Tang LH, Gao Q, Tang LH, Gao Q. [Malaria Control and Elimination in China]. 2013.

Mavundza EJ, Maharaj R, Chukwujekwu JC, Finnie JF, Van Staden J. Larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis of 10 South African plants that are traditionally used as mosquito repellents. South African J Bot 2013;88:86?9.

Wachira SW, Omar S, Jacob JW, Wahome M, Alborn HT, Spring DR, et al. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Parasit Vectors 2014;7:312.

Ramkumar G, Karthi S, Muthusamy R, Suganya P, Natarajan D, Kweka EJ, et al. Mosquitocidal effect of glycosmis pentaphylla leaf extracts against three mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae). PLoS One 2016;11:1?11.

Veni T, Pushpanathan T, Mohanraj J. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Terminalia chebula Retz.(Family: Combretaceae) medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. J Parasit Dis 2017;41:693?702.

Khanavi M, Vatandoost H, Dehaghi NK, Dehkordi AS, Sedaghat MM, Hadjiakhoondi A, et al. Larvicidal activities of some Iranian native plants against the main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Acta Med Iran 2013:141?7.

Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Sivakumar R. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). Indian J Med Res 2013;138:129?34.

Nafiâ I, Sulistyowati S. Penggunnan Ekstrak Biji Pepaya (Carica Papaya L) Sebagai Larvasida Nabati Terhadap Kematian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles Dan Aedes Aegypti Instar III. STIGMA J Mat dan Ilmu Pengetah Alam Unipa 2014;7.

Rollando R, Hariono M. Larvicidal Activity of Ethanol Extract, N-hexane Fraction, Ethyl Acetate, and Methanol Extract From Stinkvine Leaf (Paederia Foetida L.) Against Larvae of Aedes Aegypti and Anopheles Instar III. Maj Obat Tradis 2016;21:137?42.

Ristiati NP, Dewi NPSR, Mulyadiharja S, Prastuti NWG. Toxicity of extract seeds custard apple (Annona squamosa) on mortality of mosquito larvae Anopheles sp. J Biol Udayana 2019;23:1.

Rombot D V, Semuel MY. Bioaktivitas Larvasida Nyamuk Anopheles sp. Dari Ekstrak Bunga Tagetes erecta L. Yang Berasal Dari Kota Tomohon. J Biomedik JBM 2020;12:161?7.

Ejeta D, Asme A, Asefa A. Insecticidal effect of ethnobotanical plant extracts against Anopheles arabiensis under laboratory conditions. Malar J 2021;20:466.

Mathew N, Anitha MG, Bala TSL, Sivakumar SM, Narmadha R, Kalyanasundaram M. Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species. Parasitol Res 2009;104:1017?25.

Jang Y-S, Kim M-K, Ahn Y-J, Lee H-S. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plants against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Appl Biol Chem 2002;45:131?4.

Simmonds MSJ. Flavonoid-insect interactions: recent advances in our knowledge. Phytochemistry 2003;64:21?30.

Perumalsamy H, Jang MJ, Kim J-R, Kadarkarai M, Ahn Y-J. Larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in Millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species. Parasit Vectors 2015;8:1?14.

Kannathasan K, Senthilkumar A, Venkatesalu V, Chandrasekaran M. Larvicidal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of Vitex species against Culex quinquefasciatus. Parasitol Res 2008;103:999?1001.

Harada K, Suomalainen M, Uchida H, Masui H, Ohmura K, Kiviranta J, et al. Insecticidal compounds against mosquito larvae from Oscillatoria agardhii strain 27. Environ Toxicol An Int J 2000;15:114?9.

Al-Snafi AE. A review on Lawsonia inermis: A potential medicinal plant. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:1?13.

Dass K, Mariappan P. Larvicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and Murraya exotica leaves extract on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Mosq Res IJMR 2014;1:25?7.

Bakhshi H, Abai MR, Amin G, Zolfi R, Pirmohammadi M, Bakhshi A, et al. Larvicidal Properties of Botanical Extracts of <i>Lawsonia inermis</i> against <i>Anopheles stephensi</i> Adv Infect Dis 2014;04:178?85.

Ghosh A. Efficacy of phytosterol as mosquito larvicide. Asian Pacific J Trop Dis 2013;3:252.

Devarakonda R. REVIEW OF LITERATURE?: PHYTO PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON Journal of Global Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences. J Glob Trends Pharm Sci Rev 2019;9:5.

Kulkarni K V, Jamakhandi VR. Medicinal uses of Pithecellobium dulce and its health benefits. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2018;7:700?4.

Gabetta B, Martinelli EM, Mustich G. Plants of Mozambique. V. Triterpenes of Olax dissitiflora. Fitoterapia 1974.

Mavundza EJ, Chukwujekwu JC, Maharaj R, Finnie JF, Van Heerden FR, Van Staden J. Identification of compounds in Olax dissitiflora with larvacidal effect against Anopheles arabiensis. South African J Bot 2016;102:1?3.

Ishak AR, Dom NC, Hussain H, Sabri NH. Biolarvacidal Potential of Ipomoea Cairica Extracts Against Key Dengue Vectors. Procedia-Soc Behav Sci 2014;153:180?8.

Thomas TG, Rao S, Lal S. Mosquito larvicidal properties of essential oil of an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn. Jpn J Infect Dis 2004;57:176?7.

Samuel L, Lalrotluanga, Muthukumaran RB, Gurusubramanian G, Senthilkumar N. Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet and Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Exp Parasitol 2014;141:112?21.

Mathivanan T, Govindarajan M, Elumalai K, Krishnappa K, Ananthan A. Mosquito larvicidal and phytochemical properties of Ervatamia coronaria Stapf.(Family: Apocynaceae). J Vector Borne Dis 2010;47:178?80.

Waris M, Nasir S, Abbas S, Azeem M, Ahmad B, Khan NA, et al. Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of Ricinus communis (Castor) and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti L. Saudi J Biol Sci 2020;27:2403?9.

Elimam AM, Elmalik KH, Ali FS. Larvicidal, adult emergence inhibition and oviposition deterrent effects of foliage extract from Ricinus communis L. against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in Sudan. Trop Biomed 2009;26:130?9.

Aouinty B, Oufara S, Mellouki F, Mahari S. Evaluation préliminaire de l’activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (. BASE 2006.

Basheer AGM. Ricinus communis (CASTOR) as larvicide on Anopheles arabiensis Patton. Inernational J Adv Pharmacy, Biol Chem 2014;3:319?28.

Sogan N, Kapoor N, Singh H, Kala S, Nayak A, Nagpal BN. Larvicidal activity of Ricinus communis extract against mosquitoes. J Vector Borne Dis 2018;55:282?90.

Rawani A, Ghosh A, Laskar S, Chandra G. Aliphatic amide from seeds of Carica papaya as mosquito larvicide, pupicide, adulticide, repellent and smoke toxicant. J Mosq Res 2012;2.

Ravichandran R, Thangaraj D, Alwarsamy M. Antimosquito activity of leaf extract of neem (Meliaazedarach) and papaya (Carica papaya) detected against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 2014;3:11928?32.

Valiant M, Soeng S, Tjahjani S. Efek Infusa Daun Pepaya (Carica papaya L.) terhadap Larva Nyamuk Culex sp. Maranatha J Med Heal 2010;9:151364.

Chandrasekaran R, Seetharaman P, Krishnan M, Gnanasekar S, Sivaperumal S. Carica papaya (Papaya) latex: a new paradigm to combat against dengue and filariasis vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). 3 Biotech 2018;8:1?10.

Ilham R, Lelo A, Harahap U, Widyawati T, Siahaan L. The effectivity of ethanolic extract from papaya leaves (Carica papaya L.) as an alternative larvacide to Aedes spp. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2019;7:3395.

Malathi P, Vasugi SR. Evaluation of mosquito larvicidal effect of Carica Papaya against Aedes Aegypti. Int J Mosq Res 2015;2:21?4.

Kovendan K, Murugan K, Naresh Kumar A, Vincent S, Hwang J-S. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 2012;110:669?78.

Hayatie L, Biworo A, Suhartono E. Aqueous Extracts of Seed and Peel of Carica papaya gainst A Aedes Aegypti. J Med Bioeng Vol 2015;4.

Anwar C, Febriyanto F, Dalilah D. Papaya Leaf (Carica papaya L.) Active Fraction Effective as Bioinsectiside Against Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) Larva Invitro Study. Biosci Med J Biomed Transl Res 2018;2:1?11.


Steinmetz EF. Paederia foetida. Q J Crude Drug Res 1961;1:133?44.

Kumar V, Singh UP, Bhatt HR, Zaman K, Ali M. Isolation of new racemic sugar (D/L galacturonic acid) from leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. Nat Preced 2011:1.

Upadhyaya S. Screening of phytochemicals, nutritional status, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Paederia foetida Linn. from different localities of Assam, India. J Pharm Res 2013;7:139?41.

Gade S, Rajamanikyam M, Vadlapudi V, Nukala KM, Aluvala R, Giddigari C, et al. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of stigmasterol & hexacosanol is responsible for larvicidal and repellent properties of Chromolaena odorata. Biochim Biophys Acta (BBA)-General Subj 2017;1861:541?50.

Vignesh A, Elumalai D, Rama P, Elangovan K, Murugesan K. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) against three mosquito vectors. Int J Mosq Res 2016;3:62?7.

Misvar Ali, K., MityThambi, Tom Cherian, Sunaina Jamal K and ATJ. A Preliminary Study On Larvicidal Efficacy Of Three Traditional Medicinal Plants Against Dengue Vector, Aedes Aegypt. Int J Curr Res 2015;7:18406?9.

Sathya Narayanan PC, Kalpana Devi R, Pushpalatha M, Raveen R, Lingathurai S. Bio-Efficacy of Terminalia chebula Retz.(Combretaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Curr Res Biosci Plant Biol 2014;1:41?9.

Swargiary A, Daimari M, Roy M, Haloi D, Ramchiary B. Evaluation of phytochemical properties and larvicidal activities of Cynodon dactylon, Clerodendrum viscosum, Spilanthes acmella and Terminalia chebula against Aedes aegypti. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2019;12:224.

Muhammad S, Khan BA, Akhtar N, Mahmood T, Rasul A, Hussain I, et al. The morphology, extractions, chemical constituents and uses of Terminalia chebula: A review. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:4772?5.

Sudjari IA, Telussa AS. Pengaruh Dekok Daun Mint (Mentha arvensis var javanica) Sebagai Larvasida Nabati Nyamuk Anopheles sp di Pantai Balekambang, Kecamatan Bantur, Kabupaten Malang. Fakultas Pendidikan Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya: Malang. 2005 [Cited 2012 May 10] 2008.

Klika KD, Saleem A, Sinkkonen J, Kähkönen M, Loponen J, Tähtinen P, et al. The structural and conformational analyses and antioxidant activities of chebulinic acid and its thrice-hydrolyzed derivative, 2, 4-chebuloyl-?-D-glucopyranoside, isolated from the fruit of Terminalia chebula. Arkivoc 2004;7:83e105.

Jayanthi C, Merina AJ. Bactericidal and mosquito larvicidal activity of luteolin – 7 – o - glucoside from the flowers guttered speciosa 2015:81?2.

Ravaomanarivo LHR, Razafindraleva HA, Raharimalala FN, Rasoahantaveloniaina B, Ravelonandro PH, Mavingui P. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;4:798?806.

Kaushik R, Saini P. Growth inhibiting effects of Annona squamosa leaf extract on vector mosquitoes. J Exp Zool India 2009;12:395?8.

Romianingsih NPW, Muderawan IW, Tika IN. LARVACIDAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SUGAR APPLE (ANNONA SQUAMOSA) SEEDS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI. Wahana Mat dan Sains J Mat Sains, dan Pembelajarannya 2017;9:20?4.

Elango G, Rahuman AA, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Venkatesan C. Laboratory study on larvicidal activity of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Parasitol Res 2009;104:1381?8.

Wardani IGAAK, Santoso P, Cahyaningsih E. Efektivitas Sediaan Granul Bunga Gumitir (Tagetes Erecta L) Sebagai Larvasida Aedes Aegypti. J Ilm Medicam 2018;4:123?7.

Marques MMM, Morais SM, Vieira IGP, Vieira MGS, Raquel A, Silva A, et al. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes erecta against Aedes aegypti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2011;27:156?8.

Nikkon F, Habib MR, Saud ZA, Karim MR. Tagetes erecta Linn. and its mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;1:186?8.

Zannah NS, Cahyana AH, Saefumillah A. Analysis of ?-terthienyl (2, 2?: 5?, 2 ?-terthiophene) in Indonesian Tagetes erecta flower by HPLC and LC-MS/MS. AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2374, AIP Publishing LLC; 2021, p. 40007.

Broussalis AM, Ferraro GE, Martino VS, Pinzón R, Coussio JD, Alvarez JC. Argentine plants as potential source of insecticidal compounds. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:219?23.

Wandscheer CB, Duque JE, da Silva MAN, Fukuyama Y, Wohlke JL, Adelmann J, et al. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Toxicon 2004;44:829?35.

Ziba MM. Preliminary laboratory trial of Neem on anopheles and culex larvae in Zambia. Cent Afr J Med 1995;41:137?8.

Okumu FO, Knols BGJ, Fillinger U. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Malar J 2007;6:1?8.

Howard AF V, Adongo EA, Hassanali A, Omlin FX, Wanjoya A, Zhou G, et al. Laboratory evaluation of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) wood chippings on Anopheles gambiae ss (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 2009;46:107?14.

Ayinde AA, Morakinyo OM, Sridhar MKC. Repellency and larvicidal activities of Azadirachta indica seed oil on Anopheles gambiae in Nigeria. Heliyon 2020;6:e03920.

Nicoletti M, Serafini M, Aliboni A, D’Andrea A, Mariani S. Toxic effects of neem cake extracts on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae. Parasitol Res 2010;107:89?94.

Maheswaran R, Ignacimuthu S. A novel herbal formulation against dengue vector mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Parasitol Res 2012;110:1801?13.

Silapanuntakul S, Keanjoom R, Pandii W, Boonchuen S, Sombatsiri K. Efficacy of Thai neem oil against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Heal 2016;47:410?5.

Manzano P, García OV, Malusín J, Villamar J, Quijano M, Viteri R, et al. Larvicidal activity of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica against Aedes aegypti larvae. Rev Fac Nac Agron Medellín 2020;73:9315?20.

Dua VK, Pandey AC, Raghavendra K, Gupta A, Sharma T, Dash AP. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes. Malar J 2009;8:1?6.

Miyazawa M, Anzai J, Fujioka J, Isikawa Y. Insecticidal compounds against Drosophila melanogaster from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. Nat Prod Res 2003;17:337?9.




How to Cite

Asrianto, A., Samai, S., Sahidin, M., Sahli, I. T., Hartati, R., & Mulyani, W. (2023). Literatur Review: Plant Efficacy as Biolarvicide for Anopheles Mosquito Vector Control: Literatur Review: Efikasi Tanaman Sebagai Biolarvasida Untuk Pengendalian Vektor Nyamuk Anopheles. Jurnal Sains Dan Kesehatan, 5(2), 224–235.

Most read articles by the same author(s)