Hepatitis C: Epidemiologi, Etiologi, dan Patogenitas

Abstract

Hepatitis merupakan penyakit peradangan pada organ hati yang disebabkan oleh berbagai faktor, salah satunya adalah infeksi virus. Virus Hepatitis C (VHC) merupakan salah satu virus dengan genom RNA yang dapat menyebabkan infeksi pada sel-sel hati (hepatosit) yang dapat menular melalui darah. VHC memiliki berbagai genotipe yang tersebar di berbagai belahan bumi yang telah teridentifikasi dan terklasifikasi. VHC tersusun atas berbagai protein yang merupakan hasil ekspresi RNA VHC. Protein tersebut terdiri atas protein struktural maupun non-struktural yang memiliki fungsi masing-masing, khususnya pada saat menginfeksi sel inang. Protein-protein VHC tersebut dapat menginisiasi sistem pertahanan tubuh sehingga timbul respon imum tubuh terhadap VHC. Genom VHC dapat mengalami mutasi sehingga mempu menghindari respon imun inangnya. Kegagalan respon imun tubuh untuk mengeliminasi VHC menyebabkan kerusakan pada sel-sel hati hingga berpotensi mengalami sirosis bahkan kanker. Ko-ifeksi VHC dengan infeksi mikroorganisme lainnya atau bahan-bahan lainnya yang dapat menurunkan fungsi normal organ hati dapat memperparah perjalanan penyakit hati. Variasi genetik dan kecepatan VHC untuk bermutasi menyebabkan sulitnya memperoleh vaksin yang tepat untuk virus tersebut, sehingga berpotensi menjadi penyakit yang bersifat silent epidemic.   

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Published
2019-12-31
How to Cite
Alhawaris. (2019). Hepatitis C: Epidemiologi, Etiologi, dan Patogenitas. Jurnal Sains Dan Kesehatan, 2(2), 139-150. https://doi.org/10.25026/jsk.v2i2.132