Peranan Sel Limfosit Dalam Imunulogi: Artikel Review

Keywords: Lymphocyte, Immunology, Adaptive Immunity

Abstract

Lymphocytes are found in blood and lymph. Besides Natural killer (NK) cells, T cells and B cells are the different forms of lymphocytes. Each of these cells plays fundamental role in the body adaptive immune response. B lymphocytes are central players in the immune response; canonically, they have been recognized as precursors of antibody-producing cells: plasma cells. Recent findings have shown that the role of B lymphocytes goes far beyond the production of antibodies. There are different subtypes of B lymphocytes with different participations in innate and adaptive responses that include the recognition of the antigen, its processing, and its presentation to T lymphocytes, as well as the production of cytokines that impact and modulate the response toward the pathogen. Traditionally, it has been considered that B lymphocytes do not have phagocytic abilities that allow them to internalize, to process, or even to be infected by bacterial pathogens. The new information has shown that B lymphocytes can be readily infected by bacterial pathogens and respond to those infections. T lymphocytes play a role in cytotoxic immune responses. They belong to the adaptive immune system and perform a wide array of functions in immune regulation, inflammation and protective immune responses. In recent years, it has been shown that T cells are involved essentially across the entire spectrum of tissue physiology and pathology, not just in reactions or diseases considered to be bonafide immunological, but also, to cite just some examples, in metabolism, in tissue repair, in dysbiosis, and in pregnancy. Basic research on T cells has also sown the seeds that spawned the new era of immunotherapy that is engaging numerous researchers in finding a cure for cancer. The review of this article aims to further understand the latest findings regarding the formation and work mechanism of lymphocytes, especially on adaptive immunity. It summarizes the various forms of lymphocytes and their immunomodulatory roles in health and diseases.

References

O. Orakpoghenor, D. O. Avazi, T. P. Markus, and O. S. Olaolu, “Lymphocytes : A Brief Review -,” vol. 3, no. June, pp. 4–8, 2019.

G. Rosario-p, “The development of B lymphocytes Introduction,” Universiteit Utrecht, 2009.

Y. Dachlan, “Immune System. Course Material. Doctoral Program,” Faculty of Medicine : Airlangga University, 2019.

M. D. Cooper and J. F. A. P. Miller, “Discovery of 2 Distinctive Lineages of Lymphocytes, T Cells and B Cells, as the Basis of the Adaptive Immune System and Immunologic Function: 2019 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award,” JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 322, no. 13. pp. 1247–1248, 2019.

J. I. Castañeda-sánchez, A. Rosa, M. Duarte, M. L. Domínguez-lópez, J. J. De Cruz-lópez, and J. Luna-herrera, “Lymphocyte Updates - Cancer, Autoimmunity and Infection,” Lymph. Updat. - Cancer, Autoimmun. Infect., 2017, doi: 10.5772/66613.

N. Baumgarth, J. W. Tung, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Inherent specificities in natural antibodies: A key to immune defense against pathogen invasion,” Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 26, no. 4. pp. 347–362, 2005.

K. Hayakawa, R. R. Hardy, L. A. Herzenberg, and L. A. Herzenberg, “Progenitors for Ly-1 b cells are distinct from progenitors for other b cells,” J. Exp. Med., vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 1554–1568, 1985.

N. Baumgarth, “The double life of a B-1 cell: Self-reactivity selects for protective effector functions,” Nat. Rev. Immunol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–46, 2011.

N. Solvason et al., “Cyclin d2 is essential for BCR-mediated proliferation and CD5 B cell development,” Int. Immunol., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 631–638, 2000.

E. Montecino-Rodriguez and K. Dorshkind, “B-1 B Cell Development in the Fetus and Adult,” Immunity, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.11.017.

M. Y. Chou et al., “Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans,” J. Clin. Invest., vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 1335–1349, 2009.

L. Kulik et al., “Pathogenic Natural Antibodies Recognizing Annexin IV Are Required to Develop Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury,” J. Immunol., vol. 182, no. 9, pp. 5363–5373, 2009.

F. Martin, A. M. Oliver, and J. F. Kearney, “Marginal zone and B1 B cells unite in the early response against T-independent blood-borne particulate antigens,” Immunity, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 617–629, 2001.

N. Baumgarth, “The double life of a B-1 cell: Self-reactivity selects for protective effector functions,” Nat. Rev. Immunol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–46, 2011.

Y. S. Choi and N. Baumgarth, “Dual role for B-1a cells in immunity to influenza virus infection,” J. Exp. Med., vol. 205, no. 13, pp. 3053–3064, 2008.

K. Suzuki, M. Maruya, S. Kawamoto, and S. Fagarasan, “Roles of B-1 and B-2 cells in innate and acquired IgA-mediated immunity,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 237, no. 1. pp. 180–190, 2010.

L. A. De-Gennaro, A. F. Popi, S. R. de Almeida, J. D. Lopes, and M. Mariano, “B-1 cells modulate oral tolerance in mice,” Immunol. Lett., vol. 124, no. 2, pp. 63–69, 2009.

C. H. Kim, “B cell-helping functions of gut microbial metabolites,” Microb. Cell, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 529–531, 2016.

P. Shen et al., “IL-35-producing B cells are critical regulators of immunity during autoimmune and infectious diseases,” Nature, vol. 507, no. 7492, pp. 366–370, 2014.

U. M. Selvaraj, K. Poinsatte, V. Torres, S. B. Ortega, and A. M. Stowe, “Heterogeneity of B Cell Functions in Stroke-Related Risk, Prevention, Injury, and Repair,” Neurotherapeutics, vol. 13, no. 4. pp. 729–747, 2016.

[K. A. Young, X. S. Chen, V. M. Holers, and J. P. Hannan, “Isolating the Epstein-Barr virus gp350/220 binding site on complement receptor type 2 (CR2/CD21),” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 282, no. 50, pp. 36614–36625, 2007.

O. L. Hatton, A. Harris-Arnold, S. Schaffert, S. M. Krams, and O. M. Martinez, “The interplay between Epstein-Barr virus and B lymphocytes: Implications for infection, immunity, and disease,” Immunol. Res., vol. 58, no. 2–3, pp. 268–276, 2014.

U. C. Meier, G. Giovannoni, J. S. Tzartos, and G. Khan, “Translational Mini-Review Series on B cell subsets in disease. B cells in multiple sclerosis: Drivers of disease pathogenesis and Trojan horse for Epstein-Barr virus entry to the central nervous system?,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 167, no. 1. pp. 1–6, 2012.

K. Nothelfer, P. J. Sansonetti, and A. Phalipon, “Pathogen manipulation of B cells: The best defence is a good offence,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 3. pp. 173–184, 2015.

Y. Souwer et al., “B Cell Receptor-Mediated Internalization of Salmonella : A Novel Pathway for Autonomous B Cell Activation and Antibody Production,” J. Immunol., 2009.

K. Kubelkova and Z. Krocova, “the Role of B Cells in Intracellular,” in B cells: Molecular Biology, Developmental Origin and Impact on the Immune System, Cell Biolo., no. October, L. R. Robert L. Montes, Ed. Nova Science Publishers, 2013, pp. 1–43.

C. A. J. Vosshenrich, A. Cumano, W. Müller, J. P. Di Santo, and P. Vieira, “Pre-B cell receptor expression is necessary for thymic stromal lymphopoietin responsiveness in the bone marrow but not in the liver environment,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol. 101, no. 30, pp. 11070–11075, 2004.

T. Nagasawa, “Microenvironmental niches in the bone marrow required for B-cell development,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 2. pp. 107–116, 2006.

D. C. Hargreaves et al., “A coordinated change in chemokine responsiveness guides plasma cell movements,” J. Exp. Med., vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 2001.

M. R. Ehrenstein and C. A. Notley, “The importance of natural IgM: Scavenger, protector and regulator,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 10, no. 11. pp. 778–786, 2010.

H. De Haard, “The Development of B Lymphocytes,” Universiteit Utrecht, 2010.

A. P. Immunopaedia, Bellanti JA, Taylor, “Overview of T Cell Subsets,” Basics Immune Syst., 2017.

Y. Chien, C. Meyer, and M. Bonneville, “ γδ T Cells: First Line of Defense and Beyond ,” Annu. Rev. Immunol., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 121–155, 2014.

E. J. Adams, Y. H. Chien, and K. C. Garcia, “Structure of a γδ T cell receptor in complex with the nonclassical MHC T22,” Science (80-. )., vol. 308, no. 5719, pp. 227–231, 2005.

Y. Cai et al., “Pivotal Role of Dermal IL-17-Producing γδ T Cells in Skin Inflammation,” Immunity, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 596–610, 2011.

M. Bonneville, R. L. O’Brien, and W. K. Born, “γ δ T cell effector functions: A blend of innate programming and acquired plasticity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 10, no. 7. pp. 467–478, 2010.

C. Nathan, “Neutrophils and immunity: Challenges and opportunities,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 3. pp. 173–182, 2006.

Published
2020-07-24
How to Cite
Prakoeswa, F. R. (2020). Peranan Sel Limfosit Dalam Imunulogi: Artikel Review. Jurnal Sains Dan Kesehatan, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.25026/jsk.v2i4.212