Covid-19 and Its Vaccine Development: A Narrative Review
Keywords:COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), mutation, vaccine platforms
COVID-19 merupakan penyakit saluran pernapasan yang ditetapkan sebagai pandemi pada Maret 2020 dan disebabkan oleh severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Tingginya penyebaran COVID-19 di seluruh dunia menyebabkan pengembangan vaksin mendesak untuk dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, review ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji tentang COVID-19 dan tantangannya dalam pengembangan vaksin serta mengkaji keamanan, efektivitas, dan immunogenisitas dari platform vaksin-vaksin yang telah mendapatkan izin penggunaan di beberapa negara. Berdasarkan pengalaman infeksi yang pernah terjadi di dunia, vaksin mampu mencegah penyebaran penyakit-penyakit infeksi dan menyelamatkan 23,3 juta nyawa. Terdapat beberapa tantangan yang dihadapi dalam pengembangan vaksin untuk COVID-19, diantaranya mudahnya SARS-CoV-2 bermutasi dan potensi terjadinya antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) setelah vaksinansi. Berbagai macam platform digunakan dalam perkembangan vaksin COVID-19, baik platform teknologi tradisional (inactivated dan live-attenuated vaccine) maupun teknologi baru (viral vector, protein subunit, dan nucleic acid vaccine). Untuk mencegah penyebaran infeksi SARS-CoV-2, terdapat 10 vaksin yang telah mendapatkan izin penggunaan darurat di beberapa negara. Platform yang digunakan antara lain vaksin mRNA, vektor virus, terinaktivasi, dan vaksin peptida. Vaksin-vaksin tersebut dilaporkan efektif, aman dan dapat ditoleransi dengan baik oleh partisipan dengan derajat efek samping yang timbul adalah ringan hingga sedang. Meskipun kejadian ADE tidak ditemukan dalam semua vaksin tersebut, monitoing terhadap kejadian tersebut harus dilakukan karena berdasar pada pengalaman penggunaan platform inactivated vaccine SARS-CoV sebelumnya, diketahui dapat menimbulkan vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory diseases (VAERD).
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