Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, Indonesia en-US Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan 2303-0267 Front Cover, Editorial Information, Table of Content, Author Guideline, Back Cover https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1813 Journal Editor Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1813 In Silico Study of Bajakah Compounds (Spatholobus suberectus) to Protease SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/950 <p>Coronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19 is caused by a virus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Until now, there is no specific treatment guide in dealing with COVID-19 in Indonesia. The curative pharmacological therapy for COVID-19 used is antiviral such as lopinavir, ritonavir, and oseltamivir, currently based on trial and error. This study carried out a Molecular Docking Analysis of 16 compounds owned by the Bajakah plant (Spatholobus suberectus). Oseltamivir was used as a control, and validation was carried out on a natural ligand, namely boceprevir against the main protease CoV or M<sup>pro</sup>, 7C6S and the result was 1.47 Å using Toshiba hardware and AutoDock Tools, ChemSketch, Discovery Studio, Avogadro, UCSF Chimera software. Lipinski Rules of Five (RO5) analysis and ADMET analysis using SWISSADME and admetSAR. Licochalcone A compound had the best binding energy and inhibition constant values of -7.98 kcal/mol and 1.42 ?M. In contrast, the 6-Methoxyeriodictyol compound had fewer binding energy and inhibition constants, namely -5.24 kcal/mol and 143.04 ?M, respectively. In addition to the licochalcone A compound, the afrormosin compound, 3'4'7'-trihydroxyflavone, formononetin, cajanin, and dihydrokaempferol showed good binding energy values and inhibition constants compared to oseltamivir (control), so that these compounds have the potential to inhibit Mpro SARS-COV-2 or the virus that causes <br />COVID-19. Analysis of Lipinski Rules of Five and ADMET is used to determine the properties of a molecule on the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the human body, and the results obtained to meet the requirements so that it is potentially effective for oral consumption.</p> Norhayati Norhayati Andika Andika Aris Purwanto Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 78 89 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.950 Pengaruh Ekstrak Etanol Daun Asam Jawa (Tamarindus indica L.) terhadap Jantung Tikus Putih (Rattus norvegicus L.) yang Diinduksi Minyak Jelantah https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1619 <p>This study aims to determine the effect of ethanol tamarind leaves (<em>Tamarindus indica</em> L.) om histology and levels of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in rat hearts induced by used cooking oil.This study used a completely randomized design with 25 male white rats devided into 5 groups: negetive control, positive control, 1, 2 and 3 doses treatment (150 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW, and 250 mg/kg BW), where each group consisted of 5 replications. The stages of this research were phytochemical screening, total flavonoid test, antioxidant test, oil quality test, measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme levels and cardiac histological observations. The data analysis used was one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s test. The results showed that the dose of ethanol extract of tamarind leaves (<em>Tamarindus indica</em> L.) 250 mg/kg BW was the most optimal dose to reduce histological damage in the form of pycnotic percentage with an average of 30.40% and thickness of the myocardium of the heart with an average of 852.8 um and decreased cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels by an average of 152 U/L. The ethanol extract of tamarind leaves (<em>Tamarindus indica</em> L.) had an effect on the hearts of white rats (<em>Rattus norvegicus </em>L.) induced by used cooking oil.</p> Nurkhaida Siregar Husnarika Febriani Syukriah Syukriah Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 90 99 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1619 Karakterisasi Pati Bonggol Pisang Kepok Kuning (Musa paradisiaca L.) sebagai Bahan Tambahan Sediaan Farmasi https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1658 <p>Banana sucker is the part of banana plant which is rarely used and is considered trash after harvesting. The banana sucker composition is 76% starch and 20% water. Starch content in banana sucker has the potential to developed in the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to find a new source of starch and determine the characterization of starch sucker of yellow kepok banana as an alternative excipient in pharmaceutical. The sucker starch of yellow kepok banna isolation uses bleaching method whith sulfite solution. Results showed that sucker starch of yellow kepok banan from Plamongansari and Ambarawa powder form, brownish white, odorless, and tasteless. Kepok banana sucker strach has a pH of 6.51 and 6.60; moisture content 11.74% and 13.29%; ash content 0.74% - 0.83%; moisture content 12.28% and 13.50%; flow rate of 0.86 grams / second and 1.04 grams / second; resting angle 39.89 ° and 39.91 ° so that banana sucker starch includes a fairly good flow properties; development power 80.36% and 93.65%; solubility 18.28% and 22.96%; particle size 32.984?m – 91.466?m; starch content 45.07% and 51.48%.. Starch producted further characterized using FT-IR to know functional groups is OH, C-H, C-O-C and C-O which is the same as the chemical structure of starch.</p> Tias Eka Rahmawati Intan Martha Cahyani Siti Munisih Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 100 108 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1658 Potensi Interaksi Polifarmasi Pasien Jantung Koroner (PJK) di Rumah Sakit I.A. Moeis Samarinda https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1709 <p>The condition of the heart experiencing changes is called Coronary Heart Disease namely, changes in body cells that encourage organ work. According to the 2018 Basic Health Research, coronary heart disease in Indonesia is 1.5% or is estimated to be 883,447 people and for East Kalimantan it is 1.9% or as many as 13,977 people. The use of a lot of drugs, often occurs in coronary heart patients with additional comorbiditiens that require doctors to prescribe more than one drug to overcome the complaints suffered by the patient. The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction of the use of drug in patients with coronary heart disease and additional comorbidities. The concept was carried out using a random sampling data collection method in the form of taking outpatient prescription data at the cardiac polyclinic for 1 year, from January to December 2021. There were 242 patients, 59.1% male and 40.9% female. The highest comorbidities, of the 7 comorbidities with the most patients being hypertension, amounted to 122 and followed by diabetes mellitus 40 patients. The highest drug interactions were found in 108 clopidogrel and lansoprazole drugs, 31 spironolactone and furosemide drugs, and 26 simvastatin and amlodipine. With the incidence of drug interactions as many as 218 of 242 samples.</p> Melenia Saputri Sinta Ratna Dewi Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 109 114 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1709 Potensi Ekstrak Kasar Enzim dari Tempe Kedelai Hitam (Glycine soja (L.) Merr.) sebagai Obat Fibrinolitik Alami dengan Metode Clot Lysis In Vitro https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1712 <p>Fibrinolytic enzymes are enzymes that can be used to break down fibrin. In thrombus therapy (cardiovascular disease), this enzyme has an activity similar to plasmin, which is able to reduce fibrin by hydrolyzing fibrin into dissolved products and inhibiting the formation of fibrin clots that can trigger cardiovascular disease. Black soybean tempeh has various benefits, one of which is to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk of blood clots. Due to the content of the enzyme protease in black soybeans which is able to degrade fibrin threads. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential of black soybean tempeh (Glycine soja (L.) Merr) can produce enzyme extracts as natural fibrinolytic drugs. This study was conducted by taking ingredients, crude extraction of enzymes from black soybean tempeh by centrifugation, purification of crude extracts of enzymes using ammonium sulfate salts of 80%, determination of enzyme protein levels with the Lowry method and testing of fibrinolytic potential with the clot lysis method in vitro. The variation in the concentration of the extract used in the test was 12.5; 25; 50 and 100%. The results showed that crude extracts of black soybean tempeh enzymes were able to lyse blood clots. The protein content of the black soybean tempeh extract sample after purification using ammonium sulfate was 245.76 ?g/mL. The optimum percentage of blood clot lysis at a concentration of 100% of the sample after purification was 59%.</p> Nadea Sherly Widya Putri Nadea Ana Indrayati Fransiska Leviana Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 115 125 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1712 Hubungan Tingkat Stres dengan Stomatitis Aftosa Rekuren pada Mahasiswa Universitas Mulawarman https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1726 <p>Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (SAR) is an oral disease characterized by recurrent ulcers limited to the oral mucosa without other systemic disorders in the patient. SAR can create discomfort and disturbance, especially when performing the functions of mastication, swallowing, and speech. There are predisposing factors that trigger RAS, one of which is stress. This study aimed to determine the relationship between stress levels and the incidence of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (SAR) in undergraduate students at Mulawarman University. This research is a cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling technique. The sample was 380 Mulawarman university students. The data analyses used were univariate and bivariate analyses with a chi square test. The results showed that 82% of students (311 students) were in the moderate category, and 61% (231 students) did not experience RAS. The chi-square test showed no significant relationship between mild and moderate stress levels and moderate and severe stress on SAR. There was a significant relationship between mild and severe stress levels on SAR, where students with mild stress levels tended not to experience SAR 1.731 times compared to students with severe stress. There was a relationship between stress levels and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in Mulawarman University students.</p> Hanida Fitri Hasanah Verry Asfirizal Silfra Yunus Kende Masyhudi Masyhudi Cicih Bhakti Purnamasari Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 126 131 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1726 Total Fenolik, Flavonoid, dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak dan Fraksi Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1728 <p>Water hyacinth is a very fast growing aquatic weed. It contains active compounds including flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, tannins, phenolics, anthraquinones and quinones. These compounds can be used as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, anticancer, anticoronary and antiinflammatory agents. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of phenolic and flavonoid in water hyacinth plant extracts and fractions and the IC<sub>50</sub> value which describes the level of antioxidant effectiveness. The extract was obtained by maceration using ethanol as a solvent. Fractionation of water hyacinth ethanol extract using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water as solvents. Antioxidant test used DPPH method. Total flavonoid on the ethanol extract were 0.023±0.0015gEQ/g, the ethyl acetate fraction 0.028±0.0015gEQ/g, the n-hexane fraction 0.008±0.0005gEQ/g, and the water fraction 0.002±0.0005gEQ/g. Total phenolic of water hyacinth herb in ethanol extract were 5.403±0.910mgGAE/g, ethyl acetate fraction was 1.810±0.225mgGAE/g, n-hexane fraction was 0.457±0.290mgGAE/g and water fraction was 0.147±0.151mgGAE/g. The IC<sub>50</sub> value for the ethanol extract was 48.64mg/L, the ethyl acetate fraction was 223.27mg/L, the water fraction was 451.86mg/L, and the n-hexane fraction was 845.00mg/L.</p> Aptika Oktaviana Trisna Dewi Adnan Nur Avif Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 132 139 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1728 Formulasi Spray Gel Ekstrak Etanol Batang Etlingera rubroloba Menggunakan HPMC sebagai Gelling Agent https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1729 <p>Herbal plants are one source of discovering secondary metabolites for active ingredients in medicine and one of them is Etlingera rubroloba from the Zingiberaceae group. The stems of these plants contain polyphenols as natural antioxidants. Application of natural antioxidants can be given topically through spray gel preparations. Spray preparations in gel form using HPMC can produce clear visuals, stable viscosity and do not irritate the skin. This study aims to obtain the optimal concentration of HPMC in the manufacture of E.rubroloba ethanol extract spray gel in terms of the resulting evaluation and physical stability. Formulation of spray gel based on the experimental method of optimizing gel base by adding E.rubroloba ethanol extract in various concentrations of HPMC 0.1% (F1); 0.2% (F2); 0.3% (F3) ; 0.4% (F4); and 0.5% (F5). The results showed that F1 with 0.1% HPMC had the best physical properties and stability of the preparation with a clear organoleptic, characteristic odor, and slightly viscous, producing a homogeneous spray gel, having a pH of 6, viscosity of 60 cps, spray weight of 0.13 gram, dry time 1.14 minutes, pattern and diameter of spraying spread well, and physically stable through centrifugation method stability test and cycling test.</p> Astrid Indalifiany Waode Sitti Zubaydah Elvira Riskiyani Kasim Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 140 148 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1729 Aktivitas Antioksidan Jamur Endofitik BS-1 yang Diisolasi dari Bunga Sambiloto Menggunakan Beras Putih sebagai Media Pertumbuhan https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1734 <p>Sambiloto merupakan tumbuhan dari famili Acanthaceae dilaporkan menghasilkan berbagai metabolit sekunder yang memiliki bioaktivitas salah satunya bersifat antioksidan. Selain menggunakan tumbuhan alaminya, sumber lainnya untuk menentukan adanya bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan dari sambiloto yaitu menggunakan jamur endofitik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan aktivitas antioksidan dan skrining fitokimia dari jamur endofitik BS-1 yang berkolonisasi dengan bunga sambiloto <em>(Andrographis paniculata)</em> menggunakan beras putih sebagai media pertumbuhan. Langkah-langkah yang dilakukan pada penelitian ini dimulai dari tahap inokulasi, optimasi, kultivasi, dan diekstraksi menggunakan etil asetat sehingga didapatkan ekstrak pekat etil asetat (EtOAc). Ekstrak EtOAc jamur endofitik BS-1 dilakukan skrining fitokimia dan uji aktivitas antioksidan. Hasil skrining fitokimia menunjukkan bahwa jamur endofitik BS-1 positif mengandung berbagai metabolit sekunder, di antaranya yaitu steroid, fenolik, dan alkaloid. Senyawa fenolik pada ekstrak jamur endofitik BS-1 ini dapat berpotensi sebagai antioksidan, yang didukung oleh hasil uji antioksidan, dimana ekstrak jamur endofitik BS-1 memiliki sifat antioksidan yang sangat kuat dengan nilai IC<sub>50</sub> sebesar 38,61 ppm.</p> Mauline Adia Silvani Riga Riga Dewi Meliati Agustini Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 149 156 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1734 Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etil Asetat Terong Ungu (Solanum melongena L.) terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1735 <p><em>Staphylococcus epidermidis </em>is the bacterium that most often causes infections in hospitals (Health care Associated Infections) and frequently found to be resistant to antibiotics, making them hard to treat. Purple eggplant<em> (Solanum melongena L.)</em> is one of the natural ingredients widely used as a food ingredient in the community with its antibacterial effect is known. This study aimed to determine the activity of purple eggplant ethyl acetate extract as an antibacterial for<em> Staphylococcus epidermidis </em>ATCC 12228. This research is an experimental study using the microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the spread plate method to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the purple eggplant ethyl acetate extract against<em> S. epidermidis </em>ATCC 12228. The extract concentrations used were 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, negative control, 10% DMSO control, and media control. The results showed that the MIC and MBC value of purple eggplant ethyl acetate extract against<em> S. epidermidis </em>ATCC 12228 were 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL, respectively. Increasing percentage of inhibition in line with the concentration used. Purple eggplant ethyl acetate extract has the potential as an antibacterial for <em>S. Epidermidis </em>ATCC 12228.</p> Alifia Nabila Salsabilla Zein Setiawati Setiawati Nia Krisniawati Eman Sutrisna Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 157 163 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1735 Karakterisasi Ekstrak Sambiloto (Andrographis panicullata Burn (f) Ness) dan Pegagan (Centella asiatica (l) Urban) https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1749 <p>Sambiloto (<em>Andrographis panicullata</em> Burn (f) Ness) dan Pegagan (<em>Centella asiatica</em> (l) Urban) merupakan tanaman yang memiliki banyak manfaat. Secara tradisional tanaman ini digunakan sebagai obat diantaranya gigitan serangga dan ular berbisa, disentri, kencing manis, penyakit kelamin, radang usus buntu, darah kotor, eksema, radang tonsil, borok dan keracunan makanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakterisasi dari ekstrak sambiloto dan pegagan yang diperoleh dari Desa Girimulyo, Kecamatan Nanggulan, Kabupaten Kulon Progo yang meliputi rendemen, susut penegringan, profil KLT, kadar senyawa aktif, dan kadar flavonoid total. Metode karakterisasi ekstrak mengikuti panduan yang tertulis dalam famakope herbal Indonesia (FHI). Hasil penelitian menunjukan ekstrak sambiloto dan pegagan diperoleh data sebagai berikut: nilai rendemen ekstrak sambiloto 18,9 % dan pegagan 21,7%, pemeriksaan organoleptik data yang diperoleh sesuai dengan standar FHI, nilai susut pengeringan sambiloto 7,85±0,60% dan pegagan 15,15±0,42%, analisis kualitatif ekstrak sambiloto dan pegagan memiliki nilai rf yang sama dengan senyawa penanda yakni andrografolid untuk sambiloto dan asiaticosida untuk pegagan, pengukuran kadar andrografolid pada ekstrak sambiloto menunjukan nilai 32,56±4,56% dan kadar asiaticosida pada ekstrak pegagan menunjukan nilai 15,01±1,69%. Hasil tersebut menunjukan bahwa ekstrak sambiloto dan pegagan yang diambil dari Desa Girimulyo, Kecamatan Nanggulan, Kabupaten Kulon Progo sesuai dengan standar yang tertulis dalam farmakope herbal Indonesia (FHI).</p> Arman Rusman Agung Endro Nugroho Suwijiyo Pramono Herman Herman Muhammad Faisal Junaidin Junaidin Haeruddin Haeruddin Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 164 171 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1749 Efek Konsumsi Kopi terhadap Kadar MDA (Malondialdehid) Tikus Terpapar Asap Rokok https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1797 <p>Coffee is the most commonly consumed beverage beside water. In addition to its benefits as a beverage that reduces drowsiness, coffee reportedly possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, and antidiabetic activity. To the best of our knowledge, no scientific studies have been published on the ability of coffee to reduce the increase in MDA levels in experimental animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The purpose of this research was to determine the possibility that coffee can indeed reduce MDA levels in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The coffee used in this study was instant robusta coffee, which had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. MDA levels were determined using the TBARS method. Results indicated that coffee could decrease MDA levels by 11.84 percent. This data indicates that coffee can mitigate the negative effects of cigarette smoke exposure.</p> Lizma Febrina Aryanti Aryanti Rolan Rusli Laode Rijai Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 172 177 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1797 Formulasi dan Evaluasi Sediaan Nanoemulsi Ekstrak Umbi Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1677 <p>Garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) has an active substance in the form of allicin which is thermolabil, allicin as the main antioxidant that can prevent free radicals. Nanoemulsion has a particle size of 20-500 nm which is an oil and water dispersion system stabilized by a combination of surfactant and cosurfactant. The purpose of this study was to obtain the best formula from the variation of VCO concentration 3%, 5%, 8% and determine the stability of nanoemulsion preparations. Nanoemulsions are formulated in oil phase VCO, surfactant Tween 80, and cosurfactant PEG 400. Nanoemulsion preparation performed organoleptic test, pH, viscosity , transmittance%, stability. The best Formula continued particle size test, and zeta potential. This study used laboratory experimental method, the results of the study were analyzed by one way ANOVA test. Obtained the best formula of nanoemulsion preparation of garlic bulb extract at a concentration of 8% VCO, the best formula physical results with clear yellow organoleptic characteristics, distinctive odor, and does not separate, pH value 4.9, viscosity value 7.0 d'pas, transmitan % value 96.11, nanoemulsion preparation of garlic bulb stable after stability test. The best Formula in Continue particle size test is the average value obtained 607.0, 53.4 and the average value of the potential Zeta test obtained -5.7, 0.86. The higher the concentration of VCO, the stability of smakin good preparation, nanoemulsion preparation that has good stability in formula 3 with a concentration of 8% VCO.</p> Alvira Intan Widyastuti Dwi Saryanti Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 178 185 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1677 Hubungan Mutu Pelayanan Kefarmasian dengan Kepuasan Pasien di Apotek Wilayah Kecamatan X Kota Surakarta Tahun 2022 https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1711 <p>Pharmaceutical service quality refers to degree of service perfection that increases patient satisfaction. Pharmacies are required to review several aspects in order to improve quality of pharmaceutical services which include tangibles, empathy, assurance, responsiveness and reliability. The research objective was to determine the correlation between quality of pharmaceutical services and degree of patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in pharmacy of X District Surakarta in 2022. This study is a descriptive involved 225 patients and 8 pharmacies in a survey. Pharmaceutical service data is concluded based on quality category of pharmaceutical services in pharmacies. Patient satisfaction was analyzed by comparing the weight of reality and expectations based on variables that affect patient satisfaction. Additionally, it was examined using the SPSS 23 Spearsman's Rho test to see if there was a correlation between caliber of pharmaceutical services and degree of patient satisfaction. In pharmacies of X District Surakarta, the quality of pharmaceutical services received an average score of 63,62% (sufficient) and an average percentage of patient satisfaction levels of 79.55% (satisfied) in 2022. The results of the Spearman's rho correlation test of 0.994 indicate that there is a correlation between quality of pharmaceutical services and level of patient satisfaction.</p> Zorathea Benita Tri Wijayanti Ganet Eko Pramukantoro Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 186 197 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1711 Formulasi dan Evaluasi Serum Gigi Ekstrak Etanol Siwak (Salvadora persica L.) https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1724 <p>Dental health is a common problem in society. Traditionally, siwak is used to prevent bleeding gums and has antimicrobial effects. In this study, a tooth serum was made from ethanol extract of siwak and its preparations were evaluated and its antibacterial effect was tested. The method used in this research was experimental and three formulations were made with different concentrations of ethanol extract of siwak, formulation 1 (21%), formulation 2 (42%), and formulation 3 (63%). The results of the preparation evaluation showed that the three formulations were not significantly different compared to the control based on organoleptic test, viscosity, pH, dispersion, and stability test. The antimicrobial effect test showed that the three formulations were able to inhibit streptococcus mutans. After the research, the conclusion that can be taken is that the three formulations of the tooth serum ethanol extract of siwak are pharmaceutically stable and formulation 3 showed the best antibacterial effect.</p> Maryam Jamila Arief Fariani Fariani Muhammad Irsal A. Mumtihannah Mursyid Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 198 204 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1724 Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etil Asetat Terong Ungu (Solanum melongena L.) terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1730 <p><em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(<em>S. aureus</em>) merupakan bakteri yang sering ditemukan resisten terhadap antibiotik dan menginfeksi pasien dengan sistem imun lemah. Saat ini, penggunaan terong ungu (<em>Solanum melongena </em>L<em>.</em>) untuk pengobatan infeksi banyak dikembangkan karena efek farmakologi yang dimiliki. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etil asetat terong ungu terhadap bakteri <em>S aureus</em>. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan metode maserasi menggunakan pelarut etil asetat kemudian dilakukan uji aktivitas antibakteri dengan metode <em>microdillution</em> untuk membandingkan efek penghambatan pertumbuhan koloni bakteri <em>S. aureus </em>oleh bahan aktif ekstrak etil asetat terong ungu konsentrasi 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, dan 40 mg/mL terhadap kontrol negatif, kontrol media, dan kontrol pelarut DMSO 5%. Ekstrak etil asetat terong ungu konsentrasi 40 mg/mL mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri <em>S. aureus </em>ATCC 25923 sebesar 94%, konsentrasi 20 mg/mL menghambat sebesar 83%, konsentasi 10 mg/mL menghambat sebesar 26%, dan konsentrasi 5 mg/mL tidak menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) ekstrak etil asetat terong ungu sebesar 20 mg/mL dan nilai KBM lebih besar dari 40 mg/mL. Aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak etil asetat terong ungu bergantung dengan dosis konsentrasi yang digunakan. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi yang digunakan maka semakin tinggi pula aktivitas antibakterinya</p> Rachmaningtyas Setyohartono Putri Setiawati Setiawati Joko Setyono Eman Sutrisna Hajid Rahmadianto Mardhihusodo Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 205 211 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1730 Analisis Kadar Total Flavonoid Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Pisang Cavendish (Musa paradisiaca var. Sapientum) Menggunakan Metode Spektrofotometri Uv-Vis https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1810 <p>Pisang cavendish (Musa paradisiaca var. Sapientum) adalah salah satu jenis pisang yang tersebar luas di berbagai Negara tropis dan dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat sebagai sumber pangan. Pisang memiliki kapabilitas dalam meningkatkan kemampuan tubuh dalam menyerap nutrisi dan mampu membantu memelihara lapisan sel yang berada di usus. Hal tersebut karena kandungan yang terdapat di dalam buah pisang yaitu senyawa asam lemak rantai pendek. Kulit Pisang cavendish kaya akan senyawa flavonoid. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kadar flavonoid total pada ekstrak etanol kulit Pisang cavendish (Musa paradisiaca var. Sapientum). Analisis kualitatif dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) yang ditandai dengan adanya penampakan noda dengan fluoresensi kuning pada UV 366 menggunakan AlCl3 &amp; noda fluoresensi kuning kehijauan pada UV 366 menggunakan Sitroborat. Penetapan kadar flavonoid totalnya dengan metode spektrofotometri UV-Vis menggunakan standar rutin yang diukur pada panjang gelombang 410 nm. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kadar flavonoid pada kulit Pisang cavendish yaitu 1,643%.</p> Nur Rezky Khairun Nisaa Abd. Malik Virsa Handayani Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 212 217 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1810 High Calcium Boba from Egg Shells to Prevent Stunting and Boost the Immune System https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1187 <p>Nutritional status and stunting are problems in several countries, including Indonesia. Calcium is one of the important micronutrients to prevent stunting, and the immune system can act as a second messenger of lymphocytes to maintain the body's immune response. Calcium in eggshells can be processed into boba which is popular in the community. This study aims to examine eggshells as a high-calcium food source to prevent stunting and help increase immunity. This research is a Literature Review of open access articles published in 2016 - 2021 on Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. Duplicate reports were excluded from the study. The keywords used in searching the journal in the database are eggshells, calcium, stunting, immune system, and popular foods. Research shows that every gram of eggshell contains 381 mg of calcium. Adequate calcium intake supports increasing height, maintaining bone health, and preventing stunting. Increased intracellular calcium is essential for the steps of intracellular signaling that induce proliferation, cytokine production, and regulation of several transcription factors. Eggshells can be safely consumed if they are kept for 20 minutes and finely ground with the high calcium content. High calcium boba from eggshell flour can prevent stunting and boost the immune system.</p> Laillatul Mas’udah Dhani Wijaya Nabila Asha Rahmita Ulva Nur Rahmawati Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 218 223 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1187 Literatur Review: Plant Efficacy as Biolarvicide for Anopheles Mosquito Vector Control https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1172 <p><em>Mosquito vectors are a severe threat to the prevalence and incidence of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and filariasis.&nbsp;</em><em>Malaria</em><em>&nbsp;is a Plasmodium infection that is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria cases in tropical and subtropical countries have social and economic impacts. Mosquito vector control has been using chemical and synthetic compounds. This method can reduce malaria cases, but it creates new problems that also slow down the elimination of malaria in the long run. Vector control in the larval phase using bioactive compounds of various plants is an alternative to eradicating vectors; besides that, utilizing these bioactive compounds is relatively safer, cheaper, and more accessible. Plants contain several compounds that are toxic to Anopheles mosquito larvae. This literature study summarizes research on extracts of various plants that function as larvicides of the Anopheles mosquito. The research method uses a literature study. The literature related to the research topic was obtained from the databases of Google Scholar, Semantic Sholar, Garuda, PubMed, and Science Direct. The primary literature is a publication of the last ten years. The literature study results showed that the plants Vitex negundo</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Lawsonia inermis</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Stachys byzantina</em><em> K.Koch.</em><em>, Pithecellobium dulce</em><em> Bth.</em><em>, Olax dissiti?ora</em><em> Oliv.</em><em>, Ipomea cairica</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Ricinnus communis</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Carica papaya</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Paederia foetida</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Glycosmis pentaphylla</em><em> Retz.</em><em>, Terminalia chebula</em><em> Retz.</em><em>, Annona squamosa</em><em> Linn.</em><em>, Tag</em><em>etes erecta Linn.</em><em> and Azadiracha indica</em><em> Juss. </em><em>against mosquito vectors. This study concludes that secondary plant metabolites can be used as candidates and alternatives for controlling Anopheles mosquito larvae.</em></p> Asrianto Asrianto Suarna Samai Muhamad Sahidin Indra Taufik Sahli Risda Hartati Wiwiek Mulyani Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 224 235 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1172 Penggunaan Aplikasi Edukasi Seksual dalam Mendukung Sustainable Development Goals 2030 https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1186 <p>Increasing sexual reproductive health information and knowledge about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in adolescents is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals, 2030. The use of sexual education applications helps educate adolescents that supports the achievement of these targets. This study describes the effect of sexual health education applications on adolescent knowledge and decreases the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome to support the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. This research is a literature study of articles published in NCBI, Google Scholar, and PubMed. The keywords used in the article search were: sex education, android application, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and reproduction health. Inclusion criteria were articles published in 2016-2020, using English or Indonesian, original article, can be accessed in full text, free of charge and the manuscript content’s were relevant to the study. Review articles and duplicate journals were excluded. In this study, only ten of the 1250 articles met the inclusion criteria. Study shows that sexual education applications can increase adolescents' understanding of reproductive health, good and healthy sexuality, improve sexual attitudes and behavior, and also reduce the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome that supports the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.</p> Dhani Wijaya Humaira Ramzi Azian Firman Saputra Ilmiyatul Muhimmah Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 236 242 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1186 Flavonoid dalam Penyembuhan Luka Bakar pada Kulit https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1247 <p>Burns can be caused by heat or other acute trauma, currently the number of cases is still high in Indonesia and the world. The advances of burns treatment are made through research on possible natural ingredients. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are most commonly found in plants and as well as possible in burn healing. The aims of this literature review are decribed burns, histological structure of skin, and the effectiveness of flavoinoids in burns healing. The method used in this literature review is by searching data through the Science Direct, PubMed, and Google chrome databases. The search results of 19 appropriate journals, it was found that the flavonoid compounds can heal burns through their ability to inhibit prostanoid biosynthesis, inhibition of phosphodiesterase, and various other important mechanisms.</p> Gede Reynaldi Wahyu Sanjaya Ni Made Linawati I Gusti Kamasan Nyoman Arijana Ida Ayu Ika Wahyuniari I Gusti Nyoman Sri Wiryawan Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 243 249 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1247 The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Livestock Subsector https://jsk.farmasi.unmul.ac.id/index.php/jsk/article/view/1760 <p>The Covid-19 pandemic had an impact on human activities and all sectors globally. This study aims to review the impact of the pandemic on livestock products. Furthermore, data were collected from several literature, websites, national, and international news, relevant to current policies and conditions. The impact on the livestock sub-sector is not measured and includes a decrease in purchasing power and demand for livestock products such as meat, milk, and eggs, decreased profitability, hampered distribution of production inputs such as feed and medicine affect the increasing production costs, veterinary services limitation, hinder the livestock animal and product distribution, disruption on marketing and business downturn. Meanwhile, the positive impact is that farmers created an online-based digital innovation, known as e-commerce, involving product marketing, business, and product diversification. The Government also plays a vital role in demand and price stabilization, which ensures the supply chain sustainability of the products. Therefore, the livestock business can keep running sustainably, especially during the pandemic.</p> Hamdi Mayulu Endang Sawitri Irsan Tricahyadinata Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Sains dan Kesehatan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 5 2 250 259 10.25026/jsk.v5i2.1760