Pengaruh Zat Besi dan Seng terhadap Perkembangan Balita serta Implementasinya

Keywords: perkembangan balita, seng, zat besi

Abstract

Angka kejadian gangguan perkembangan balita di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Gangguan perkembangan pada balita, terutama pada 1000 hari pertama kehidupan dapat menurunkan produktivitas anak tersebut sampai dewasa. Akibatnya, kemampuan belajar tahap pendidikan selanjutnya tidak tercapai secara optimal dan berkaitan dengan penghasilan di masa depan. Beberapa faktor dapat memengaruhi perkembangan balita, diantaranya adalah defisiensi seng dan zat besi. Defisiensi zat besi dapat menyebabkan hipomyelinasi, gangguan pertumbuhan, diferensiasi, dan elektrofisiologi neuron, serta perubahan regulasi neurotransmiter di otak. Seng berperan dalam neurotransmiter di area neuron presinaptik dan postsinaptik serta berperan dalam neurogenesis, maturasi dan migrasi neuron dan pembentukan sinapsis otak. Defisiensi kedua mineral ini akan menyebabkan perkembangan balita terganggu atau tidak optimal. Guna mencegah anemia, WHO merekomendasikan pemberian suplementasi zat besi setiap hari selama 3 bulan berturut-turut setiap tahun untuk anak 6 bulan hingga 5 tahun.  Pemberian seng rutin untuk balita sampai saat ini belum menjadi rekomendasi dari WHO. Rekomendasi yang telah dikeluarkan terkait seng masih terbatas pada pemberian seng sebagai terapi tambahan pada anak dengan diare.

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Published
2020-07-22
How to Cite
Purnamasari, D. M., Lubis, L., & Gurnida, D. A. (2020). Pengaruh Zat Besi dan Seng terhadap Perkembangan Balita serta Implementasinya. Jurnal Sains Dan Kesehatan, 2(4). https://doi.org/10.25026/jsk.v2i4.194